Microwave transmission networks and link planning


  • This training course provides the student with a strong background in the area of planning telecommunication transmission networks using modern Radio-relay Digital Microwave radio.
  • The course covers in detail all the important aspects of radio propagation, starting from free-space loss and absorption loss, followed by statistical analysis of various phenomena impairing radio reception process K-factor variation and ducting.
  • The introductory part of the course also reviews basic parameters of the microwave radio systems, antenna, transmission lines and all other auxiliary equipment used during implementation of microwave radio-relay sites.


Instructor led training , Conducted on regular and fast track program. Contact us.

What you will gain?

After completing this course, the participant will understand about:

  • Essentials of Transmission engineering and will be able to design and manage microwave networks.
  • The person will have the knowledge to optimize and improve the network performance and quality.

Pre requisites

Degree in engineering from ECE /EEE / E&I with basic knowledge on digital & RF communication is recommended. Industrial experience with telecom service provider/vendor is preferred.

Who should attend?

The course is designed for telecommunications professionals, including transmission engineers, network planners and technical project managers who are involved in the area of planning, deployment, commissioning or operation of modern Radio-relay Digital Microwave Radio or Point to Point microwave radio.

Candidates working in other relevant field like transmission NOC , Switching, WiMax ,Data networks  are also welcome to join the course.

Practicals :

Excellent lab facility is available to carryout microwave path profile creation/analysis with in-house link design tools. GPS  and  RF transceiver having frequency range from HF to UHF are also available for practicals.

Course outline

1. Introduction and Definitions

  • Introduction to  RF communication and available RF Spectrum
  • Hierarchy in Transmission Networks
  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
  • Transmission Media
  • Terrestrial Radio-relay links
  • MW versus Optic Fibre
  • Mobile Transmission Networks
  • Logarithmic Units
  • Synchronization

2. Link Planning

  • RR Network and System Specification
  • Map study and preparation of path profiles
  • Field survey and site determination
  • Determination of Antenna Heights
  • Path Calculations
  • Performance and availability
  • Frequency Spectrum Allocation
  • Equipment Specifications & Selection
    • MW Radio
    • Digital Modulation
    • Receiver Sensitivity
    • Signal Equalizers
    • Forward Error Correction (FEC)
    • Scrambling and Interleaving
    • Network Management
  • Antennas
    • Types of Antenna
    • Antenna Gain
    • VSWR, Cross-polarization Discrimination
    • Radiation Pattern
    • Typical Antenna Characteristics
    • Near Field versus Far Field
    • Antenna Misalignment
    • Transmission Lines (Feeders)
    • Power Supply
    • Towers and Masts
    • Shelters and Containers
    • Auxiliary Equipment
    • Economical Considerations
  • Passive repeaters

3. Microwave Propagation

  • Free Space Propagation
  • Atmospheric Absorption
  • Rain Attenuation
  • Fresnel Zones Concept
    • Clearance Criteria
  • Terrain Related Effects
    • Reflections (Analysis and Countermeasures)
    • Diffraction
  • Multipath Fading Mechanism-Flat Fading
    • Frequency Selective Fading
    • Applicable Fade Margins
    • Radio Signature Curves

4. Link Budget Calculations

  • Transmission and Reception
  • Link Budget with Branching Circuitry

5. Link Engineering

  • Site Selection Considerations
  • Map Study
  • Site Position Determination
  • Path Profiles
  • Path Clearance Criteria

6. Field Survey

  • Site Survey
  • Path Survey

7. Link Performance and Availability Considerations

  • Basic Definitions of Reliability, Performance and Availability
  • Selected NA (Bell core) Definitions
  • ITU-R Related Definitions
    • Hypothetical Reference Connection G.821
    • Worst Month and Annual Parameters
  • Availability and Performance Recommendations
    • ITU-T G.821
    • ITU-R F.696-based PDH MW Link Design Guidelines
    • Availability Recommendation ITU-R F.557
    • ITU-T G.826/828

8. Protection and Diversity

  • The Need for Protection
  • Definitions of Protection Schemes and Arrangements
  • Levels of Protection
  • Types of Protection
  • Ring Protection
  • Diversity Arrangements
    • Frequency Diversity
    • Space Diversity
    • SD Improvement Factor
    • Angle Diversity
    • Combination of Diversities
    • Relative Effectiveness

9. Frequency Planning and Interference Analysis

  • Setting Up the Frequency Plan
  • International Frequency Plans
  • Frequency Planning Rules
    • Two-Frequency Plan
    • Four-Frequency Plan
    • Meshed Networks
  • Interference in Digital Networks
    • Co-channel Interference
    • Adjacent Channel Interference
    • Receiver Threshold Degradation
    • Interference Mitigation
    • Planning Considerations

10. Testing:

  • Step-by-step Procedure of MW Hop Design
  • Alignment, Testing and Maintenance
    • Causes of Unavailability
    • Sub refractive Fade
    • Super refractive Fade
  • Static and Dynamic Testing
  • Antenna Alignment
  • Other Problems
  • Troubleshooting Procedure
  • Exercise for microwave path designs.